Hazard Topics

Case Study 2: Impacts of 79 AD Vesuvius Eruption

Here are the resources describing the impacts from the Vesuvius Volcano disaster in 79 AD..

http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/lavori/episodes.pdf

https://vesuviusvolcanoo.weebly.com/environmental-and-human-effects.html

http://mandalaprojects.com/ice/ice-cases/pompeii.htm

https://volcanoproject.weebly.com/mount-vesuvius.html

https://earth.esa.int/web/earth-watching/environmental-hazards/content/-/article/mount-vesuvius-fire

 

My favorite article is my first article- actually all of the article were interesting, but I like this one the most because it’s more of journal type, proper study, and it hits on the impacts of Pompeii. (It’s only four pages and it an easy, interesting read.)http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/lavori/episodes.pdf

This one describes the event, and highlights the post eruption phases Vesuvius went through. This helps explain the layers you see at Pompeii, and helps you understand how Pompeii and the people were preserved so well for this length of time. The article breaks it down into the regions, and for me this gave me a better understanding of what I experienced as I explored Pompeii back in January.

This photo you see here is one I took where you can see the layers.

Case Study 2 Week 1: the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

(I forgot to finish this and submit it before)

My event is the tsunami that happened in the Indian Ocean in December 2004. The countries that it affected the most were Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka.

The plate boundary in the area that the tsunami occurred was a subduction zone, where the Indian plate is subducting beneath the Burma plate. The type of event was a tsunami as a result of an undersea megathrust earthquake.

I think that the most interesting thing that I’ve learned so far is that the earthquake that caused this tsunami was the third-largest earthquake ever recorded via seismograph.

 

Case study 2, Week 3, Assign#1, Chetco Bar Fire

Image result for oregon wildfire evacuations
Favored link: New Evacuation Plan Article

https://www.statesmanjournal.com/story/news/2017/09/04/chetco-bar-fire-evacuation-brookings-illinois-valley-selma-cave-junction-grants-pass/631532001/

I like this article because it goes into good detail about the fire and how it greatly affected the residents of the area.

 The BAER Program Report

https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/5631/

Restoration of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness Article

http://ijpr.org/post/damage-done-post-fire-logging-answer-chetco-bar#stream/0

Website to find information on what areas were closed due to the fire

https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/closures/5385/

 

Case study 2, Week 2, Assign#3, Chetco Bar Fire

Some other useful maps to have when a wildfire is beginning to break out is a wind current map, vegetations map, and topographic map. Since fire is strongly influenced by oxygen, knowing is the how much the wind is going to influence a fire. A vegetation map will basically show the amount and type of vegetation in the area for the fire to feed on. A topographic map can help with seeing if there are any natural barriers to the fire in nature. Like canyons or rivers, large mountains with little vegetation so the fire will have no fuel or heat due to the high elevation to keep it going.

Map example: Soil Burn Severity map

Most people don’t think about the aftermath of a wildfire and how it damages the area’s soil.  A soil burn severity map (example seen below). This would come in handy to see where the most damage and where a potential debris flow could happen due to the lack of organic material keeping the soil in place. This would help me if I lived in the area by making sure to avoid the areas with highly burned soil on rainy days to avoid possible debris flows.

Debris flows

A hazard that can show up in the aftermath of a wildfire is Debris flows. When the organic material was consumed by the fire, the soil turns into ash and char. When the next wet weather comes to the area, the soil is flooded with liquid. With no organic material to hold the soil in place on the mountainous wilderness area, the slopes quickly erode and cause a debris flow. This happened in the area after the Chetco Bar fire was mainly contained and the wet season began in Oregon.

An Article that I found interesting

Example of how a fire influences the weather around it

From the website: https://www.hcn.org/articles/the-art-and-science-of-forecasting-wildfire

Case study 2, Week 1, Assign#3, Chetco Bar Fire

The Chetco Bar Fire

The event I picked for my second case study was the Chetco Bar wildfire. This fire burned in the Kalmiopsis Wilderness located in the Southwest part of Oregon. The first sign of fire was reported on July 12th, 2017 and firefighters believe it was started by a lightning strike. The fire started in the scar of the 2002 Biscuit Fire (that only burned 45 acres) but grew because of Brookings effect. Brooking effect is specific to the Southern coast of Oregon. It uses the effect of katabatic wind were wind rushes caused by the change in temperatures due to elevation change moves down along an elevation/sloped form and picks up speeded. Being one of the main pillars (oxygen, fuel, and heat) in having a fire, the wind provides the fire with plenty of oxygen to the fire. Combine the sweltering summer climate that caused dry vegetation to fuel the fire and the heat to create the lightning, the fire spread rapidly. Covering over 300 acres after a week of burning. By August 2017, the fire spread to 22,042 acres and mandatory evacuations were issued to the residence in the area. The fire was reported to be 100% contained on November 2th, 2017 with a total of 191,125 acres burned.

Lightning

I found how lightning is created quite interesting. As the area’s ground warmed up due to the heat, the air heated up and rose, taking vaporized water with it to form clouds and friction between the water droplets or ice builds up enough electron charge to where it needs to go somewhere. At the same time, charge partial are accolading on the earth’s surface below the thunderclouds. When the attraction between the charged electrons and particles between the thunderclouds and the ground becomes too great, it overcomes airs resistance to electric flow and moves quickly to each other to balance out. So fast that it is traveling a 3rd of the speed light, causing the flash of light.

Case Study 2 Week 3

Sources Found that talk about the Human Impact:

The Second Case Study- Tsunami

 

My favorite resource that I found was probably the Youtube link. I chose this one because if you are looking at it wanting to know the human impact then watching a video is better than reading an article. The video will help you tap into the emotion of the people that were involved in this Tsunami (or any disaster). I think most of this information is accurate, however, due to the media involvement everything must be taken with a grain of salt.

Human impact on the  2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

In looking for resources for my blog post this week in regards to the human impact on the  2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which preamble the Fukushima nuclear disaster. I noticed most updated news articles were five years after the events. The Japanese commemorated the anniversary with most news media outlets in Japan covering countless personal stories, depicting how things have changed since the triple blow, most of these stories were hard to read. I must admit, I myself feel a bit of guilt. But first, a few facts; The Japanese government previously declared the first five years after the disaster as a “Concentrated Reconstruction Period” with $220 billion poured in for reconstruction. The next five years have been designated a “Reconstruction and Revitalization Period” $58 billion has been allocated. $150 billion. In comparison, the costliest hurricane ever in US history (Katrina) was $150 billion, almost half of what Japan will spend.

My favorite post: Five years after 3.11- the struggles of Fukushima’s farmers continue, summed up in my understanding that as bad as the earthquake was, most in the Tohoku region lost their family and friends from the tsunami, and their livelihood from the Fukushima disaster. As you may well know Fukushima’s fresh produce and seafood still carries a stigma that seriously affects the livelihood of the many in the agricultural and fishing industry, tens of thousands of whom are still living in temporary shelters six years later. This is where my guilt comes in, like most environmentally conscious fish lovers living on the west coast of our continent, I was, and still am aware of our beloved, radioactive, Pacific Ocean. Would I buy a fish from the east coast of Japan? Not in a half-life! But Japan seems not to be like us when it comes to helping thy neighbor, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, “the number of people whose main occupation is agriculture has decreased from 3.5 million in 1985 to 2.4 million in 2000 and 1.9 million in 2011, with the percentage of farmers who are 65 years or older increasing from 19.5% to 51.2% to 59.1% respectively. In Fukushima, the disaster has accelerated this trend. “  So it seems the struggle will go on for the thousands of children orphaned by the over 20,000 killed, as well as many thousands of life-long agricultural and fishing families in the region.

 

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://amp.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/10/the-faces-of-japans-tsunami-disaster-survivors-five-years-on&ved=2ahUKEwjZ_YLJ75XaAhVPyWMKHcUgBikQFjAMegQIBhAB&usg=AOvVaw2AwWR5LYj9LXqVSdXYhK9D&ampcf=1

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://amp.usatoday.com/amp/81431884&ved=2ahUKEwjZ_YLJ75XaAhVPyWMKHcUgBikQFjAQegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw0ldP7_QDM_mlCUYFZ2QvxN&ampcf=1

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/03/10/national/survivors-speak-grief-guilt-life-tsunami/&ved=2ahUKEwjZ_YLJ75XaAhVPyWMKHcUgBikQFjAAegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw2uzFHg9zF7uK_fIQ9zA8Rq

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.tampabay.com/opinion/perspective/Seven-years-after-the-Fukushima-nuclear-disaster-Japanese-town-rebounds-from-zero_166186667&ved=2ahUKEwiz6eKH75XaAhUW8GMKHXfdD9oQFjADegQICBAB&usg=AOvVaw0qOhFI09VM9nIt3g59NyRa

Hurricane Maria Human Impact

Sources:

My favorite source was ‘Quick Facts: Hurricane Maria’s Effect on Puerto Rico’. The article starts by providing background information on Puerto Rico and the storm. Neatly formatted chronological sections describe what happened when Maria made landfall; Maria’s effects; and present living conditions. I think the information is reliable. I Googled claims made in the article to verify the authenticity and was able to using well known websites as secondary sources.