All posts by cray

Preparedness Improvement

I realized that while I like to think that I am prepared for a disaster if one were to occur, I didn’t have all of the supplies that I need for a basic disaster supply kit. I own some of these things such as clothes, food, matches, kitchen utensils, etc., but I don’t own everything. So, I would buy everything that I don’t have from the store and combine it with the items that I do have. I would put all of these items in a large duffel bag to create a disaster supply kit.


Community Preparedness

It was quite easy to find hazard plans for the Juneau community. The City and Borough of Juneau Homepage has three different plans in their Emergency Management section: 2016 Emergency Operations Plan, All-Hazards Mitigation Plan Final, and an Avalanche Response Plan. I found this website within 10 minutes through a simple google search. I think that the variety of plans shows that my community is well-prepared in case a disaster happens. I really like that there is one specific plan dedicated to avalanches because avalanches are very common in Juneau and many people live in avalanche prone area. One improvement that could be made to these plans is updating them. These plans are from several years ago and I think that they should be reviewed again. I feel a lot better about how well my community is prepared after reading these plans because I didn’t even know that my community had a plan in place at all.

Social Media Pros and Cons


I thought that the first article was interesting because it emphasized that social media is a positive tool to have during natural disasters. The article stated that: “Firefighters and police officers cannot respond to every phone call. In some cases, emergency call response centers have shut down or have become unreachable because of damaged communication systems.” People have been known to use apps such as Facebook, Twitter, and Nextdoor to look to the community for help when they weren’t receiving help from first responders. During Hurricane Harvey, a family and their petswere rescued by neighbors when they were unable to contact first responders. These apps have also been used to organize food and medical supplies and find places for people to stay. Furthermore, it is a great tool to help people to connect and support each other after a disaster. In disastrous situations families, friends, and neighbors are able to  help one another and keep each other safe with the aid of these apps.


Although social media can have a positive impact during a natural disaster, it can also be a negative tool. The second article that I found talks about the “good, the bad, and the in-between” of using social media. I used this article to focus on the negative aspects of using social media during a natural disaster. One negative thing in using social media is the fact that people are often wrong on social media. Usually you are relying on people’s opinions and not an accurate news source. Also, social posts that are tying to be helpful or that are announcing someone’s safety can unintentionally reveal information that can endanger others.


Aldrich, Daniel. 2017. “Why Social Media Apps Should Be In Your Disaster Kit.”

Zoltick, Lauren. 2014. “The Good, Bad and In-Between of Social Media in Crisis Situations.”

Human Impacts

  1. Stockton, Riley, “1960 Chile Earthquake’s Exponential Effects.” 2014.
  2. Nadeem, Asnan. “Impacts of the 1960 Chile Earthquake.” 2015.
  3. Bhalotra, Sonia et al. “Long-term economic consequences of the 1960 Chile earthquake.” 2011.
  4. “The Social, Political, and Economic Aftershocks of the Chilean Earthquake.” 2010.

My favorite resource is the second article. This article has both the author’s opinion and facts. Asnan discusses social impacts, economical impacts, and environmental impacts. I thought that this was a very interesting article that had a lot of useful information on aftermath of the Chilean Earthquake.

Case Study 2 Hazard Post

The figures that I found for the 1960 Valdivia earthquake were based mainly on post hoc analysis since seismology technology hadn’t been developed yet. The first map that I found was a map depicting the epicenter of the earthquake. This map includes the fault, epicenter, and subduction zone involved with this earthquake. The second map that I found was a map of the tsunami generated by the earthquake. This map shows the epicenter of the earthquake and the travel time in hours of the wave front of the tsunami. The third map that I found shows the rupture areas of both the 1960 earthquake and the 2010 earthquake. All of these maps are extremely easy to read. Everything is clearly labeled and well laid out. I feel that people who lived in the region would definitely find these maps useful because they would be able to look at the location of the subduction and rupture zone that caused the earthquake as well as where a tsunami would travel and how long it would take to reach different locations.


Disaster Game

I like the earthquake disaster game much more compared to the other disaster game that I played for my previous case study. The game allowed plenty of time to prepare for the disaster, so you didn’t feel too rushed. I do wish that the budget was larger though because they ask you to do a lot of things with it. I ran out of money the second time I played the game. Both times I ended up failing and had a lot of casualties, so I had a hard time trying to figure out how to “pass” the game.

Case Study 2 Week 1

For my second case study choice I chose to study the largest earthquake ever recorded. This earthquake occurred on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia in southern Chile. The Nazca Plate has been colliding and subducting underneath the South American plate for thousands of years. At a subduction zone, the piece of crust that is descending gets caught in the trench and tension builds up as it tries to descend further. When we feel an earthquake it is that tension releasing which sends seismic waves through the Earth’s crust. The 1960 Chile megathrust earthquake was caused by the Nazca plate releasing tension and descending 15 meters underneath the South American Plate. The most interesting thing that I have learned about the 1960 earthquake so far is that damage cost estimates were over half a billion dollars.

Case Study 1 Human Impacts


My favorite resource is the second one that is listed. This website has information on why the eruption occurred, casualties from the event, and its impact on humans and the environment. I think that this website is accurate because it agrees with everything that I have found in researching the explosion of Mount Tambora in 1815.

Case study 1 week 2 – Maps

I had some difficulty finding a lava flow hazard map of the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora because the eruption occurred over 200 years ago, but I did find a table and an ash fall map.

The  table that I found summarizes the disaster prone areas around Tambora based on the radial distance from its peak. Disaster Prone Area 1 is 8km from Tambora. Lahars, ash fall, and incandescent bombs are hazards to this area. Disaster Prone Area II is 5km from Tambora. Pyroclastic flows, lava flows, toxic gases, incandescent bombs, ash fall, lahars and mudflows, and high acidity in water are hazards to this area. Disaster Prone Area III is 3km from Tambora. Pyroclastic flows, lava flows, toxic gases, incandescent bombs, and heavy ash fall are hazards to this area.

The map of Mount Tambora that I found was for the thickness of volcanic ash caused by the  eruption. This map has several circles extending from Mount Tambora to surrounding areas. Each circle represents the amount of ash in centimeters that each area experienced.

Hazard Game

The first few minutes that I played this game I was trying to figure out how to tell when a volcanic eruption was going to occur. It seems like the Geodimeter gave you more of an idea on when an eruption was going to occur than the other two instruments. It was interesting being able to compare all three instruments to see which one was able to predict an eruption the most.

The most frustrating thing about this game was trying to gauge when an eruption was going to occur. Sometimes it seemed like the eruption would occur randomly and a lot of my people would die. So I ended up keeping 20% evacuated and would raise the evacuation population depending on what my instruments read.